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Caries

dental cavity, tooth decay; from Latin caries - decay; the most common of all health disorders world wide;
Bacteria live in everyone's mouth cavity on readily usable carbohydrates (sugar). They excrete acids that attack and decalcify (demineralise) the dental enamel. As a result of that first a decalcified spot (chalky fleck, initial lesion) occurs beneath the undamaged enamel surface. Then, if decalcification progresses, the process breaks the enamel surface and a cavity appears which is called caries. Plaque is the reason behind the occurrence of caries. The following three portions of a tooth are preferably afflicted by caries: the furrowed chewing surfaces (fissures) of molars, the tooth necks along the gum margins and the spaces between teeth.

Caries Risk Test

Examination of saliva to discover caries-causing bacteria (mutans streptococci; lactobacilli)

Cariogenic

Causing or encouraging caries

Carious

Be infected with caries

Cavity

Empty space; hole; cave formation;"dental cavities" appear on teeth infected with caries

Colouring Tablets

Dental disclosing tablets, a.k.a. plaque indicators or revealers; contain erythrosine, a natural and harmless dye; Chewing up these tablets colours plaque violet.
This method is useful in order to find out whether teeth have been brushed well. Altogether, it motivates to maintain oral hygiene. In Germany colouring tablets can be purchased in pharmacies.

Crowded Teeth

lack of place in the dental arch for one or more teeth ; common anomaly, malocclusion; abnormal position of teeth like extruded from the tooth row, twisted or overlapping teeth;
caused by a disproportion between the size of teeth and the size of jaws;

Insufficient place can impede or even block the eruption of teeth. Besides cosmetic problems difficulties in cleaning abnormal arranged teeth arise. There is a higher risk of caries in inaccessible places of the mouth cavity. Crowded teeth can be relieved by extraction of teeth (back molars for aesthetic reasons).

Crowns and Bridges

Crowns and bridges are high-quality dental appliances made of gold or porcelain.
If a tooth is badly damaged so that an inlay or a partial crown can't be fixed on it a crown is the right choice. If a tooth has to be pulled out because it is not worth of being preserved, or if there is a missing tooth by other reasons, the gap left by it can be filled with a bridge. For that an abrasion to reduce the size of adjacent teeth is necessary.

In order to manufacture crowns and bridges the dentist can rely on two high-quality and proven materials, namely gold and porcelain. The qualities of gold (except colour) are almost identical to those of natural teeth. Gold is secure, durable and to an extremely high degree kind to the mouth. In visible areas gold will be covered by porcelain for aesthetic reasons, in order to give teeth a natural look. Using today's state-of-the-art technology full porcelain crowns and small bridges can be manufactured.

Those prosthetic appliances don't need to have a metal base. They have got an absolutely natural appearance as they are translucent, and they comply the maximum possible aesthetic demands.